Composition with Red Blue and Yellow
As the name states, this is a painting arranged into blocks, including some that are red, some blue, and some yellow ones. Part of the "De Stijl" (the style in Dutch) movement, Mondrian's work is commonly conceptualised as representing some sort of harmonious order. Although said movement was relatively short-lived, Mondrian's designs are still relatively well-known and popular today.
Isle of the Dead
Böcklin is part of the Symbolist school, which deals in heavy-handed metaphors, exaggeration, and a surfeit of emotive language. This piece in particular was well known in Germany; mass-produced prints were common in many homes. That isn't to say such a style has no artistic merit of its own, though: although Symbolism was generally a reaction to more realistic styles of art, its less literal take on things has parallels in some medieval and modern styles.
Although M. C. Escher is more well known for his architectural drawings, like Waterfall, I personally prefer his geometric work. Metamorphosis III could be seen as the logical endpoint of that oevure, being the most complex iteration of his Metamorphosis series - all of which show neat patterns, or, more technically, tessellated items morphing from one form to another.
Moebius, alias Jean Giraud, has had a major influence on both Western and Eastern art and directing - people whose works bear his influence include Hayao Miyazaki and Ridley Scott. Created shortly before his death, Nil's Son was commissioned as part of (no joke) a promotional campaign by a perfume brand - but it still incorporates Giraud's signature style and attention to detail.
The Palace of Memories
A crater-strewn, desolate landscape extends into the horizon. Above it hangs a curtain, as if to set the stage for a momentous scene. Painted just before the Second World War, Magritte's Palace of Memories could be seen as a reflection of the time. Or maybe not - you never quite know with surrealism.
Magritte has chosen quite an unusual Banquet to depict here - it doesn't even have any food. Instead, there's a sun placed on top of a bunch of trees. Notably, this a dual juxtaposition - not only is the sun in a bit of an unusual spot (to say the least), but also does not display its usual light-emitting behaviour.